Prior to understanding the terms and use of an off grid Solar System, it is important to understand the nature of seasonal Environmental factors used in calculations as follows:
Location is all important for the following reasons:
– Seasonal Heat causes energy created by a power device output to decrease (de-rate).
e.g.- North NJ can get to, and sustain 100f or above for prolonged periods of time.
– Seasonal Cold causes (stored energy) battery to dissipates more rapidly.
e.g.- North NJ can get to, and sustain 20f or below for prolonged periods of time.
– Seasonal SUN, due to the tilt in earths axis,
e.g.- There is naturally less Sun in north NJ during Winter months and metrological charts must be used to establish average hours of sun per day in the winter.
In order to capture the angel of most sunlight, the Solar panels need to be tilted at the latitude of a particular region. e.g.- in North NJ’s case ~40°
When panels are north of the equator, they must face south, when south of the equator, they must face north.
Autonomous- to run on its own power, Only powered by its own batteries when no sun is present, solar panels produce no output. We will not create systems lower then 3.5 days runtime no sun
LVD- Low Voltage Disconnect, to preserve enough battery power for the charge controller to stay alive until the sun come back out again.
Self healing- To reactivate the Solar power automatically once the sun comes back out, and charges the batteries back to a pre-determined, programmed voltage level.
DOD- Depth of Discharge, the percent of discharging battery power before the LVD kicks in to shut system down. We use 80% battery discharge before the LVD triggers the load to off.
Load- what is being powered by the solar system, directly inline with an LVD relay to shut the load off when a Battery reaches our pre-designated DOD
Ah- Amp hour, a unit of storage for Batteries based on a DOD of 10.5 volts, the amount of amps per hour stored.
e.g.- a 100 Ah battery could produce 100 full amps for 1 hour before reaching 10.5volts
PV- Photo Voltaic, A solar panel process by which the Suns radiation is converted to Electrical DC voltage and current via solar panels
Watts- A measure of Volts x Amps with always the same outcome, no matter the configuration.
In the day:
The SUN hits PV panels producing energy in DC volts and amps.
This energy from SUN is used to run devices and charge batteries at the same time, thus PV panels need to produce enough watts to power Load and recharge batteries all at once.
Batteries are the only Autonomous power source powering the Load.
At 3.5-5 days of no SUN:
Batteries reach 80% DOD (battery discharge) and the LVD relay clicks shuts the Load down.
This leaves enough energy stored in the batteries to keep the charge controller alive for a long period of time, weeks.
When the SUN finally comes back out:
When the SUN is out long enough to charge the batteries back to a predetermined voltage level (which we program),
Self healing takes place and the LVD will click and bring power to the Load back online.
In case of High heat:
Power output goes down, e.g.- 50% at 70c/158f. For this reason we use double wattage inverters thereby guaranteeing full rated watts even in unseasonal high heat.
The ability of how long a UPS system can run without grid power is called its “Relative uptime”
When shooting in high contrast, backlight, glare and light reflection environments such as the entrance, ATM or the window side, the object will appear dark and unrecognizable. WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) technology can ensure an identifiable image of all objects under such conditions by appropriately exposing the entire scene, both the darkest and brightest parts of the image.
An ICR (IR-cut Filter Removable) is a mechanical shutter design. It is placed between the lens and the image sensor and is controlled by a motor or an electromagnet. When the ICR is switched on, it will block infrared light and will allow only visible light to pass through. When the ICR is switched off, infrared light will be allowed and images will turn into black and white mode, which is more sensitive to infrared light.
H.264 is also known as MPEG-4 part 10. H.264 has a higher compression ratio then MPEG-4 and thus can further reduce bandwidth usage. Similar to MPEG-4, sequential and precious key frames are required during compression and decompression. H.264 provides a more effective method of compression with more precise motion search and prediction; however, it requires more powerful CPU capability.
Tamper detection can detect and respond when the camera is redirected, defocused, blocked or spray painted. It allows cameras to be installed in tampering prone places such as transportation stations, prisons and ATMs.
A weather-proof housing protects cameras from damage caused by rain and dust, allowing cameras to be used outdoors. In extremely warm or cold environments such as in the desert or in snowy weather, housing with a built-in heater and fan will be needed to ensure constant camera operation. Generally, an outdoor housing should be at least IP66-rated to provide sufficient protection for camera components.
A vandal proof housing can resist violent attacks, enabling cameras to operate in high-risk public environments such as prisons, transportation stations, parking lots, and ATM sites. A vandal proof housing features a robust design made of metal or polycarbonate plastic and can resist a violent impact force.
Voices can be transmitted in both directions at the same time. The control site can speak to and receive voices from the monitored sites. So does the monitored site.
Conventional network cameras require a power cable for power supply and an Ethernet cable for data transmission. PoE (Power over Ethernet), developed by the IEEE802.3af task force, enables power to be supplied over the same Ethernet cable and thus eliminates the use of power cables. By connecting a PoE-supported camera to a PoE switch, you need not deploy additional power cables.